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Excursions in Moscow
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Moscow... how many strains are fusing
in that one sound, for Russian hearts!
what store of riches it imparts!

Tours of Moscow

Meet the capital of the Russian Federation - the business, science, cultural and touristic centre of Russia.
According to the chronicle legend Moscow was founded by the Suzdal Duke Yuri Dolgoruky. The date of Foundation of the city is considered to be 1147. In the XIV century Moscow became the center of the Grand Duchy of Moscow.
The rise of Moscow was also facilitated by the convenient geographical location at the intersection of the most important trade routes on the Moscow river between the Oka and Volga rivers.
The architectural appearance of the capital was formed over many centuries.

From a small Slavic town Moscow eventually turned into the center of the Russian state. The best Russian and foreign masters, architects and artists worked to create a unique image of Moscow.

Today Moscow is one of the most beautiful capitals in the world combining the best examples of ancient architecture and modern architecture.

How to book an excursion?
For the convenience of tourists visiting our web site we have listed sightseeing routes, the main historical and architectural attractions of Moscow which are located on the route including the main ones: the Kremlin, the Red Square, churches and monasteries, city estates, Palace and Park ensembles as well as the skyscrapers of Moscow city, the Metropolitan metro with its unique architecture and many other places of interest.
Moscow has changed in recent few years. The history of the city has more than one century and year by year Moscow is becoming more beautiful. Most of the historical buildings, architectural ensembles, churches, monasteries have been restored and many new tourist facilities have been opened. One can trace the history of Moscow, learn how it was built and expanded, how its appearance changed over time.
We are sure that you will discover something new and you will want to wander around Moscow to see with your own eyes all its splendor.
Please take into consideration that the cost of excursions depends on many factors comprising this service: hourly job af the assistant or guide-interpreter, transportation (arrival-departure, hourly work and waiting), entrance fees to sites, cost of the license to conduct some tours in Moscow, etc.

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TOUR 1. Sightseeing tour of Moscow.

  • The Red Square, Alexander garden, Lenin Mausoleum, GUM, St. Basil's Cathedral and our Lady of Kazan.
  • Embankment of the Moscow river and the Cathedral of Christ the Savior.
  • Novodevichy Monastery - the monument of the XVI century.
  • Panoramic view of Moscow from the Sparrow hills, building of Moscow state University.
  • Poklonnaya Hill and Kutuzovsky Prospekt. Events of the Great Patriotic Wars of 1812 and 1941-1945.
  • Russian White House, Arbat street. The events of 1991-1993.
  • Garden and Boulevard rings, historical and cultural center of Moscow, Bolshoi theatre, ex-KGB building, metro (optional).

Tour 1

The tour will allow tourists to learn the history of Moscow and the Russian state from the XII century to the present day, to get acquainted with the most interesting monuments, museums and streets of the capital.
TOUR 2. Excursion to Moscow Kremlin.
  • The Red Square, Alexander garden, Lenin Mausoleum, GUM, St. Basil's Cathedral and our Lady of Kazan.
  • The Kremlin, Kremlin walls and towers.
  • The territory and Cathedrals of the Kremlin architectural ensemble of XV-XVII centuries, the place where the life of the Russian tsars and their families began and ended. Collection of icons.
  • The Tsar cannon and the Tsar bell. Russian masters of XVI-XVII centuries.
  • The Grand Kremlin Palace complex: history from the residence of Russian tsars to the house of receptions of the President of Russia.
  • The Armory. A unique collection of jewelry and utensils belonging to the Russian tsars and the Church, gifts of foreign ambassadors to the Russian state in XIII-XX centuries.

Tour 2

The tour will allow tourists to learn the history of the Russian state and get acquainted with the architecture of the Moscow Kremlin and the Red Square.
TOUR 3. Excursion to Tretyakov Fine Art Gallery.
  • Russian painting from the icons of the XII century to the avant-garde of the XX century.
  • Russian and European classical painting, still lifes, landscapes, portraits.

Tour 3

The tour will allow tourists to see the richest collection of works of art collected in the XIX century in the private collection of Russian philanthropist Tretyakov.
TOUR 4. Excursion to the metro (underground) of Moscow
  • History and architecture of the Moscow metro of XX century.
  • Visit the most beautiful stations of the circle and radial lines.
  • Development and architecture of the Moscow metro of the XXI century.
  • Moscow Central ring (MCR).

Tour 4

The tour will allow tourists to get acquainted with the unique architectural design solutions of the Moscow metro stations in the XX-XXI centuries.
Moscow city tour
No visits to museums, only external inspection of buildings and places of interest.

This tour of Moscow will allow tourists to learn the history of the city and the Russian state from the XII century to the present day, get acquainted with the most interesting monuments, museums and streets of the capital. Duration of the tour is 3 hours.

The Red Square is the heart of Moscow, the heart of Russia. This sacred land and unique architectural ensemble created a unique environment with magical charms, like Russian fairy tales.
The Red Square has absorbed the entire history of the country for 7 centuries of its life. Here every stone, every inch of the earth breathe history, covered with legends, awaken the memory and imagination of the Russian people. The Red Square is a battlefield, and a celebration, and a place of religious holidays, and a cemetery, and the arena of political speeches.
The first mention of the existence of the square-bargaining found in written sources in 1434, but its history begins much earlier.

In the Northern part of the Red Square in the XIII century there was a Posad, ie trade and craft foothills, near the road, which in pre-Mongol times ran from the city gates along the banks of the river Neglinnaya to the surrounding villages and monasteries (along the route of modern Nikolskaya street). The Western border of the square began to be determined in the XIV century, when on the site of the modern Spasskaya tower stood its wooden predecessor. The Eastern breached the walls of the Kremlin of Ivan Kalita, close facing Posad gate, began to form a major junction of roads. Of course, there had to be a Bargain. The Red Square was born as Posadskaya trade square, and its location was determined by the main gate of the city.

The Red Square is the heart of Moscow, the heart of Russia. This sacred land and unique architectural ensemble created a unique environment with magical charms, like Russian fairy tales.
In the XVI century, the area became known as Trinity Church of the Holy Trinity, which was later erected St. Basil's Cathedral. Documents of the XVII century show that in those days the area was called Pozhar. In Russia, the same object could have several names. And red officially became known only in XIX century, although under this name were mentioned in the documents of the XVII century. Different centuries have left their traces on the square:
in XV century Kremlin wall with Spasskaya, Senatskaya and Nikolskaya towers; in XVI century the place of execution and St. Basil's Cathedral; in XIX century monument to Minin and Pozharsky, the building of the historical Museum and the Upper trade rows (GUM); in XX century Lenin Mausoleum and necropolis at the Kremlin wall.
In the South side of the Red Square is the Pokrovsky Cathedral, or, as it is often called, St. Basil's Cathedral. Behind the fence of the temple is a monument to Minin and Pozharsky the first sculptural monument of Moscow, built in 1818. There is a frontal area nearby. The Northern part of the Red Square is occupied by the red brick building of the State Historical Museum, built in the 70-80 years of the last century by the architect V. Sherwood.

Alexandrovsky garden.
The creation of a public garden for festivities was part of the complex of town-planning measures for the improvement of the center of Moscow, carried out by the Commission for the construction of the city formed in 1813. In 1819-1823, architect O. I. Bove designed the Alexander garden, which stretches along the North-Western wall of the Kremlin, from the Voskresensky gate to the Embankment of the Moscow river. Previously, this territory was the bed of the river Neglinnaya, subsequently enclosed in a pipe. Osip Bove had planned to equip Park romantic ruins of the original pavilions, exotic grottoes Best gardeners, are invited from all parts of Russia, decorated the garden with unusual trees, shrubs and flowers.

Especially admired contemporaries built at the foot of the middle Arsenal tower designed by O. Bove picturesque grotto Ruins, which is well preserved to this day. Four Doric stone columns, as if sunk deep into the ground, support the vault formed by the pile of stones. Imitation crumbling ancient times, creating a vivid, aromatizirovannaya way of passing time, was to give a building a sad charm in the spirit of the theatrical romanticism of garden and Park ensembles of the time. In the walls of the grotto are mounted white stone details of Moscow buildings dismantled after a fire in 1812.

The terrace, bounding the garden from the Manege, was decorated with a fence, made in 1820 by architect F. M. Shestakov. It has not reached our time. The project of a high fence with a monumental gate on cast-iron pillars, facing the Revolution square, was executed by architect E. Pascal.

The garden is divided into three parts: Upper-from the Revolution to the Troitsky gate, Medium from the Troitsky gate to Borovitskaya and Lower Borovitsky gate to the Kremlin embankment. Three alleys runs through Alexander garden: medium, main alley, laid out along the Kremlin wall, two side more freely.

In the upper garden in 1913, an obelisk in honor of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty was built by architect S. I. Vlasyev. In 1918, at the suggestion of Lenin removed the names of the tsars and replaced them with a list of ideologists and leaders of the revolution.
In 1967, at the top of the garden, under the Kremlin wall was built the memorial complex of the Grave of the unknown soldier (architects D. Burdin, V. Klimov, Yury Rabaev).

Lenin's mausoleum.
After the death of V. I. Lenin (21.01.1924 g) it was decided to build him a Mausoleum on the place of solemn tribune, in the heart of red square. According to the project of architect A.V. Shchusev, a temporary wooden Mausoleum was built in three days. In the spring of 1924 it was replaced by a second, also wooden, but more monumental.

In 1929 and 1930 were built granite Mausoleum, repeating in the main architectural forms of the second. The building of the Mausoleum tactfully entered the ensemble. Successively increasing ledges connected the Mausoleum with the entire space of a huge area, created a rhythmic integrity of the transition from it to the Kremlin wall, the tower, the dome of the Senate. The mausoleum was small: its height was 12 meters, which was a third of the height of the Senate and the sixth part of the Spasskaya towers. And this was the limit value at which the Mausoleum could organically fit into the Red square. At small absolute sizes, the building gives the impression of monolithic power due to the pyramidal architectural composition.

The Lenin mausoleum has significantly transformed the composition and structure and imagery of the red square, visibly cemented spatial gravity the red square to the Kremlin, becoming a new ideological and architectural centre of the main square of the Soviet power.

For the past seven decades, the Mausoleum has been the main tribune of the country. In front of him on the red square military parades were held, the columns of workers who had to demonstrate to the world the might of the Soviet Union, the unity of the party and the people. In 1991, the military parade on red square on November 7 was first canceled.

The GUM and upper trading rows.
Gigantic in absolute size, the building, which occupied an entire block in front of the Kremlin wall and entered world history as an essential part of the ensemble of red square - shopping arcade, consisting of three longitudinal and three transverse streets, which originally did not have exterior doors.

In fact, it is warm, ie heated, comfortable shopping malls, consisting of thousands of stores. Floors above the level of the third floor with a span of more than 15 meters are made of glass on the openwork web of thin arcuate metal structures. Their author is engineer V. G. Shukhov. Along the perimeter of the inner streets on the second floor arranged galleries. Each store has a showcase. The complex of rows includes a small building on the other side of Rags lane. He vetoshny (parallel red square) was not an internal street series is not accidental: on the other side was not redeemed by the merchant houses. The trading rows traditionally, the area served as a market-place, with the end of the XV century; the trade was strictly organized. There are several hundred specialized series: bloom (silk), Thread, Knife etc.

Very deep, more than 8 meters basements include the remains of the walls of the shopping malls XVII, XVIII and first half XIX centuries In one of the cellars housed the famous restaurant Martijanec. In addition, the building will include three large halls, where large exhibitions have been held more than once. Above the streets of the rows are light reinforced concrete bridges. It's the work of engineers A. F. Lolita and Vladimir Shukhov. The architecture of the building belongs to A. N. Pomerantsev, the winner of the closed competition in 1888, for which 23 projects were submitted. Pomerantsev focused on the newly built building of the Historical Museum. Archaeologically filled with exactly the attributes of Russian style - panels, profiled cornices of crackers, tents and epanche coatings not more than the decor, thrown over an extremely rational structure of well-organized functional circuits, focused on the convenience of buyers and sellers.

St. Basil's Cathedral (intercession Cathedral).
In the southern part of red square stands the intercession Cathedral. In 1552, after the conquest of the Kazan khanate by Tsar Ivan the Terrible, a stone Trinity Church was built on this site, near which seven wooden churches were built in memory of the Kazan victories. The stone nine-throne Church was built in 1555 1561 on the site of wooden churches (architects Barma and Postnik Yakovlev). Thrones ultimate of churches were consecrated in memory of the celebrations, the days which were days of victories with the capture of Kazan. In 1588 over the grave of St. St. Basil (buried at the walls of the Trinity Church in August 1552) from the North-East was built a new chapel, consecrated in his honor and gave the second name to the entire Cathedral. In 1672, from the South-East was arranged chapel of the ordination (1680 Nativity of the virgin) over the grave of St. John of Moscow. During its history, the Cathedral repeatedly burned and restored. In 1670-1690 was built belfry; built promenade from the porch; the shape of the domes was changed from the helm at the onion; produced preserved until today, multi-color coloring of the walls. In 1923 part of the Cathedral was turned into a Museum, the temple was finally closed in 1929, at the same time almost all the bells of the belfry were removed and melted down. Today the Cathedral is a branch of the State Historical Museum. The first service was held on October 14, 1991, but there are no regular services.

Cathedral Of Our Lady Of Kazan.
The temple-monument in honor of the Kazan icon of the Mother of God, with which was associated the miraculous deliverance of Russia from the Polish invasion, was built at the expense of the first Tsar of the Romanov dynasty Mikhail Fedorovich and consecrated in 1636 With the time of construction, the temple became one of the main Moscow churches. Was repeatedly rebuilt in 1760, 1805, 1825, 1865 and was refurbished in 1952-1930 years under the guidance of architect P. D. Baranovsky the parish funds. In 1936, the Church was demolished. In his place was first made a summer cafe, then the Park. In this form, this site has survived to the present day.

The Church was restored in 1993 at the expense of the city. It was recreated hastily, under the brutal control of the authorities. Scientific contradictions, inevitable in such a complex case, were removed by a strong-willed order. The goals were political, not scientific and restoration. It was necessary to show a new course of power, focused on respect for the past, to Orthodoxy, to correct the mistakes and crimes of predecessors. Goal achieved. Now this is a very elegant building adorns the beginning of the St. Nicholas, Metropolitan. John in the presence of the king. Interior decoration of the famous Russian artists V. Vereshchagin, G. I. Semiradsky, V. I. Surikov, V. B. Makovsky, F. A. Bruni, A. T. Markova, marble bas-reliefs by sculptors N. S. Pimenov, A. V. Loganovsky, P. K. Klodt, etc., bronze ornaments, candlesticks and panikadila by the arch. L. V. Dal. In the gallery surrounding the building, there were 177 marble boards with the names of the dead, wounded and decorated officers, the names of military units, the dates of the main battles of the Patriotic war of 1812.

The temple became the Cathedral of Mithras. Moscow. On August 15, 1917, the local Cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church, the Northern part of red square, was opened there. From the point of view of the ensemble, this object turned out to be too elegant, too decorative. Excessive decor, toy, karamelnoe contrary to the austere, majestic nature of the ensemble of red square.

The reconstruction of the Cathedral was the impetus for a series of similar recreations: the resurrection gate, the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. So this action can not be assessed otherwise as positive. The author of the restoration architect Oleg Zhurin.

Cathedral Of Christ The Savior.
The decision to build a Cathedral to mark our gratitude to divine Providence for saving Russia from the doom that overshadowed her, was adopted by Emperor Alexander I in 1812, the Original project providing for the construction of the Cathedral on the Sparrow hills (architect A. L. Vitberg, founded in 1817) was implemented. The new project was approved in 1832 by Emperor Nicholas I. The Cathedral was re-founded in 1839 on the Prechistinskaya embankment, in the ancient tract Chertolye on the site of the Alekseevsky convent. The author of the project architect K. A. Tone applied many of the advanced achievements of the construction science of the time, which allowed to build a building that can stand for many centuries. The Cathedral was built at the expense of the Treasury with the involvement of people's donations. In 1883, the Cathedral which became the tallest building in Moscow and the largest Cathedral in Russia (height 103.5 m, capacity 10,000 people), was consecrated by the new Patriarchy. On November 5 of the same year, the first Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia was elected in the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour after a two-hundred-year Synodal period. The Metropolitan Moscow became Tikhon (Belavin). He was canonized in 1989.
In January 1918, the Brotherhood of Christ the Saviour was established to keep the Cathedral in order. In 1922-1923 the Cathedral was captured by the renovators, and in 1931 it was closed. On December 5, 1931, On Stalin's personal order, the Cathedral was blown up. On this site it was planned to build a Palace of Soviets height of 480 m (arch. B. Iofan). The project was not implemented, in 1960 on the former territory of the temple was opened swimming pool Moscow. In 1991, on the site of the altar of the Cathedral was built a chapel in the name of the icon of the mother of God. On January 7, 1995 the solemn laying of the temple took place. The Cathedral was opened on August 19, 2000. Doubt and rejection of the project of reconstruction of the main Orthodox Cathedral left behind: the Muscovites took recreated the Shrine.

Sparrow hills.
The area is known since the XV century as the village vorobyovo. The name is preserved in the name of Sparrow hills. One of the seven hills of Moscow, the length - from the mouth of the river Setun to Andreevsky bridge. The area is 106 hectares, the height of the mountains - up to 220 m, the height above the river level - from 80 to 100 m. on the territory of the Sparrow hills are: ski sports schools, ski jumping schools, bike trails and Jogging tracks, volleyball and basketball courts, sports towns. Rough terrain allows you to plan the training process of varying complexity. Competitions of various levels are held.

Overview of the city from the Sparrow hills until now remains a necessary part of the sightseeing tour of Moscow for guests of the capital. Almost always you can see there and "unorganized" Muscovites, and tourist groups. Moscow has a magic ennobling force: how many exalted thoughts and noble impulses were born here by its contemplation!

The reason for the proverb "Who has not been to Moscow has not seen the beauty" was the panoramic view of Moscow. Nowadays a broad panorama of Moscow is beautiful than ever.

In 1957, K. F. Huon painted "New Moscow", which depicted a view of Moscow from the Sparrow hills. The artist, naturally, focused attention, embodying his plan, on new buildings, first of all, at the Luzhniki stadium, which occupied the former meadows. But still the panorama of Moscow and in this picture appears white bulk with glimpses of Golden domes, as in the old, a century ago at Aivazovsky landscape...

Moscow State University.
Almost all used to be proud of the Russians and much of what makes our capital unique city, originates from the Moscow University: the zoo was founded by the first Russian Professor of the University A. Bogdanov more than one hundred and twenty-five years ago; the theatrical Moscow put the Amateur student theatre. And the first professional troupe from 1806 to 1824, until the building of the modern Maly theater was built, performed on the wing at Nikitskaya, on the site now is the house of culture of Moscow state University.

In order not to disappear in the center of the capital, the unique spirit of scholarship, creativity, distinguishing the brainchild of Mikhail Lomonosov, it is proposed to establish a historical and cultural zone of the Moscow University.

When Empress Elizabeth signed a decree on the establishment of the University in Moscow, it was decided to release for him a beautiful three-storey building with a turret on red square (it has not survived). Had to overcome from it revizion Board, Commissariat office and the Main police station, which housed 2 million rubles copper coins, the weight of which amounted to over 100,000 pounds. The trouble of relocation was not in vain.

About the shortcomings and needs of the University of Moscow was a Memorandum submitted in 1775 in the Senate for granting Catherine the great. The Empress asked to withdraw for the University more able to place for example on the Sparrow hills. At that time, classes were held in a cramped building on red square.

Money in the state Treasury for the construction was not, but to improve the conditions in which the act of the University gradually bought up on moss possession Ivashkina, Fonvizin, Volkonsky and of Prince Baryatinsky.

In the XX century Moscow University again became cramped. Given that the Russian budget does not have funds for the construction of a new complex on the territory allocated on the other side of Lomonosov Avenue, Moscow University asks the President to consider the return of three previously owned buildings on Mokhovaya street. One of them is the rector's house. The second building is a hereditary possession of chemists. The third house that MSU wants to return is a building specially built in 1918 for the Geological Institute of Moscow University.

By decree of Boris Yeltsin Moscow University is recognized as a particularly valuable object of national heritage of Russia.

Poklonnaya hill.

The Grand opening in Moscow of the Memorial of Victory in the great Patriotic war of 1941 1945 on Poklonnaya hill took place on may 9, 1995.

The first project of the Memorial was proposed in 1942 (architect Y. chernikhovsky), but it was not possible to implement it in wartime.

February 23, 1958 on Poklonnaya hill installed a memorial granite sign with the inscription: There will be built a monument in honor of the Victory of the Soviet people in the great Patriotic war of 1941 1945. Soldiers marched past him in ceremonial procession. Around planted trees, laid the Park, which was named after the Victory.
Victory Park was laid out in 1961. Construction lasted from 1985 to 1995.

The memorial includes:

  • The main monument of Victory (author of project 3. Tsereteli) symbolic bayonet with the figure of the goddess of Victory and the angels to be the messengers of glory. The height of the monument is 142 meters (10 centimeters high symbolize the 1st day of the war), at the foot of the monument is the figure of St. George.
  • The Central Museum of the great Patriotic War of 1941 1945 with an area of 33992 m² with an adjacent art gallery with an area of 3550 m² ;
  • Victory Park, which stretches over 135 hectares (1.3 times larger than the Central Park of culture and recreation. A. M. Gorky);
  • Church of St. George the victorious, consecrated may 9, 1995 (architect A. Polyansky, decoration 3. Tsereteli);
  • Memorial mosque, built in 1997 in memory of the Muslim warriors killed in the great Patriotic war of 1941-1945 (architect I. Tagiev);
  • Memorial synagogue in memory of Jews who died in the great Patriotic war of 1941-1945 and Holocaust Memorial Museum, opened in 1998 (architect M. Zarhi);
  • Open-air exhibitions of military equipment and weapons, Navy equipment, railway troops, engineering structures, etc.
  • Fountain alley, administrative buildings of the Museum.
Arbat street.
The first mention of the street dates back to the end of the XV century. It is assumed that the word Arbat is of Arabic origin and means a suburb. In the XVI century there was a Royal settlement. In the XVIII century Arbat with its adjoining alleys were fashionable aristocratic district. The dominant types of buildings were urban mansions and estates. By the early 19th century, Arbat was mostly built up with houses with shops and small town estates. It is interesting that in the territory of the area on professions of the people who inhabited this or that place streets and lanes were called. So there cook street, Grain lane Table lane, Skatertny lane, etc. the Fire of 1812 changed the little image of Arbat.

Wooden construction was still allowed here, and new houses were built on the foundations of the old ones. By the mid-19th century, many gardens remained on the Arbat. Building the streets were still bursting, especially in the middle of "noble" parts and compacted in the shopping adjacent to the Smolenskaya and Arbat squares. In the second half of the 19th century the appearance of the street is approaching the modern. Appear three-storey house, set up some low houses, decrease the gaps between houses, more shops. Home this time, which is highly decorative and plasticity of the facades, tied old the street building into a single architectural ensemble. At the turn of the 19-20 centuries, the construction of multi-storey "profitable" houses began here.

Today Arbat is a quite colorful development. It houses: Urban estates, most of which are maintained in satisfactory condition. However, their functional purpose has changed - they are occupied by institutions. Their surroundings were different. Land has been significantly reduced, with later multi-storey buildings appearing around most. Former city of low-rise private houses with vegetable gardens. As a rule, they are located inside the blocks formed by the former apartment houses facing the streets and alleys. The condition of most of them is unsatisfactory. Houses and yard services are being destroyed, the boundaries between households no longer exist. Apartment buildings of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Building was carried out on the perimeters of the old, crumbling layout. The facades of the houses determined the shape of the main streets and alleys.

With the beginning of Soviet power for many years construction in this area was not conducted. Accordingly, the blocks that could be formed on the basis of development of the early 20th century, remained unfinished. It is mainly dominated by communal settlement. Residential houses 20-50-ies of the 20th century are few. Construction continued on the scheme of the beginning of the century, ie, too, along the streets and alleys, without affecting intra-territories. Residential and public buildings 60-70-ies of the 20th century. Residential and public buildings of the 80s of our century were built again according to the old scheme, were attached to existing buildings. In the 90s, new buildings were almost not erected, and large-scale reconstruction of houses was carried out.

Unique flavor Arbat today give settled here artists, musicians and traders. Currently Arbat is a pedestrian zone.

Bolshoi theatre.
National pride of Russia Academic Bolshoi theatre. The history of Bolshoi is associated with the formation and development of Opera and ballet classics.
Originally the theatre was called Peter on Petrovka street, which he left one of his facades. Its size at the time were gigantic auditorium could accommodate 800 people.
In 1805 the building burned down. The idea of building a new theater returned only in 1816. Finally, in 1824, it was erected to the design of O. Beauvais. The stalls and tiers could accommodate about 3 thousand spectators. The building was designed for complex stage effects. But he was unlucky. In 1853, a fire broke out in the theater.

Restoration of the theater was entrusted to the architect A. Kavos. He radically rebuilt the whole building, decorated it with a white-columned portico, which was crowned by the Apollo Quadriga (sculptor P. Klodt). Kavos paid much attention to the acoustic features of the hall and achieved his goal: the Bolshoi theatre hall is considered one of the best in the world for its acoustic properties. At that time, the theater was called a hall of gold, snow, purple and sunlight.
Hall area 686 square meters, height 19.7 m, stage 21.6 m x 18.5 m.

During the Soviet period of the country's history, the Bolshoi theatre hosted major political and public events, congresses and conferences, as evidenced by commemorative plaques on the facade of the Building.

The Bolshoi theatre is both history and modernity. This is the glorious head of national culture, and the joy that every day gives the audience a famous troupe. The process of formation of the national vocal and ballet school is connected with the Bolshoi theatre. On the posters of the Bolshoi theater the names of Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Khachaturian, Khrennikov, Kabalevsky, Shaporin, Shchedrin, Kholminov, Eshpay, Molchanov and others.
Performances of the theater enthusiastically received the audience of Italy, France, Japan, USA and other countries.

One Bolshoi theatre would be enough to give the square its name. This name is all the more appropriate because there are two more theaters on the square.

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Excursion to the Moscow Kremlin: The Armory
In 1844 - 1851 architect Konstantin Ton built the building of the Armory, adjacent to the Palace from the Borovitsky gate. In ancient times, the Armory was called the Kremlin workshop, where weapons and military armor were made.

Under Peter 1, the activities of the Kremlin workshops ceased. In 1709, after the battle of Poltava, Peter 1 ordered to transfer to the Moscow Armory all captured guns and banners to create a Museum of military glory.

Over time, it has become a real Treasury of Russia, where on display are military trophies, Royal regalia, Church utensils. The same building houses the Diamond Fund of Russia.
The basis of the Museum's collection was made up of precious objects kept for centuries in the Royal Treasury and the Patriarchal sacristy, made in the Kremlin workshops, as well as received as a gift from embassies of foreign States. The Museum owes its name to one of the oldest Kremlin treasuries.

The Armoury chamber preserves ancient state regalia, ceremonial clothing and Royal coronation dress, vestments of bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church, the largest collection of gold and silverware by Russian craftsmen, West European artistic silver, monuments, arms skill, Assembly crews, items of ceremonial horse harness.

The Museum presents about four thousand monuments of arts and crafts of Russia, Europe and the East IV - early XX century. Their highest artistic level and special historical and cultural value brought the Armory of the Moscow Kremlin worldwide fame.

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Excursion to the Moscow Kremlin: Territory and Diamond Fund
The Moscow Kremlin is a symbol of Russian statehood, one of the largest architectural ensembles in the world, a rich Treasury of historical relics, monuments of culture and art.
It is located on Borovitsky hill, where at the turn of XI-XII centuries there was a Slavic settlement, which gave rise to the city. By the end of the XV century, the Kremlin became the seat of state and spiritual power of the country.

In the XVIII-XIX centuries, when the capital was moved to St. Petersburg, Moscow retained the importance of the first see. In 1918, it again became the capital, and the Kremlin - the place of work of the highest authorities. Today, the Moscow Kremlin is the residence of the President of the Russian Federation.

Architectural and urban ensemble of the Moscow Kremlin was formed over the centuries. By the end of the XVII century, the Kremlin was a city with a developed layout, a complex system of squares, streets, alleys, riding and waterfront gardens.
In the XVIII-XIX centuries, the Kremlin was significantly rebuilt. Many medieval architectural complexes were replaced by monumental palaces and administrative buildings. They significantly changed the appearance of the ancient Kremlin, but it retained its uniqueness and national identity.

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Excursion to the Tretyakov gallery
The tour will allow tourists to get acquainted with the richest collection of works of art collected in the XIX century in the private collection of Russian philanthropist Tretyakov. Duration of the tour is 3 hours.

The Tretyakov gallery is the world's largest Museum of Russian fine art. As of 1995, the gallery housed more than 50 thousand works of art. The Museum was founded in 1856 by P. M. Tretyakov. In 1892 he donated the collection to Moscow. After his death, the gallery was governed by a Council elected by the city Council.

The Museum presents the richest collections of iconography, samples of Russian painting and sculpture, the most complete collection of works of the Wanderers. The gallery also presents Russian multinational art of the XX century.

The gallery is located in the Tretyakov house in Lavrushinsky lane. The building has been rebuilt several times. Its main facade was armed in 1900-1905 by the artist V. M. Vasnetsov. In 1936, the architect A.V. Shchusev built an eight-sided extension in the pseudo-Russian style. In 1982-1996 the General reconstruction of the gallery was carried out, the building of the State art gallery on the Crimean shaft was transferred to the Museum. The complex of the Tretyakov gallery also includes the Church of Nicholas the Wonderworker in Tolmachi and some museums-apartments, such as V. M. Vasnetsov and A. S. Golubkina.

The collection of the Tretyakov gallery in Lavrushinsky lane presents Russian art of the XII-XX centuries and is divided into six sections:

Old Russian art of XII-XVIII centuries.
The main form of old Russian painting icon, iconography, painting on wood tempera paints. Mainly lime and pine boards were used, ancient tempera was kneaded on egg yolk. The main literary sources of iconographic subjects and images are the Holy Scriptures (primarily gospel texts) and the lives of the saints.

The exhibition of ancient art presents more than 200 works of iconography, sculpture, monumental painting, applied art, giving a complete and comprehensive view of the world's best collection of ancient art XI-XVIII centuries.

The exhibition reflects the history of ancient art for seven centuries, the formation and development of the greatest masters: Theophanes the Greek, Andrei Rublev, Dionysius, Simon Ushakov. Here you can see the famous shrines and miraculous icons of the mother of God, including "our lady of Vladimir" and "our lady of the don" and the world-famous most beautiful Russian icon "Trinity" Andrei Rublev.

Many of the exhibited art monuments are associated with significant historical events and outstanding personalities of our country. They are relics, an integral part of the national spiritual tradition, monuments of folk art and original way of life, expressing the moral and aesthetic ideals of the Russian people.

All represent the creation of the ancient Russian masters are not only the highest spirituality and the undeniable artistic perfection.
It is also interesting to note that the first large exhibition of old Russian painting, which featured many cleared icons, was held in Moscow in 1913.

Jewelry art. Late XIII-early XX century.
Jewelry art or gold and silver business as it was called in Russia, arose in depth of centuries of Slavic paganism, in an environment, in different epochs, the Scythian, Scandinavian, Ugro-Finnish world. On the basis of traditional crafts, with the adoption of Christianity in the X century, jewelry art of Ancient Russia developed in a single channel of Byzantine culture, in close contact with the Romanesque West and the Muslim East.

Various techniques allowed jewelers using amazing combinations of precious metals and precious stones to achieve special expressiveness in the image of complex ornamental patterns. These materials not only decorated icons, books, fabrics, vessels, etc., but also served as an important component in the temple, Church art in creating symbolic images of the divine world, its beauty and glory.

The gallery presents icons in silver frames, embroidery with pearls, liturgical books, lined with gilded silver, stones and enamels; Church utensils - crosses, icons, bowls, tabernacles...
Fund decorative art shown for the first time secular silver Petrovsky and Ekaterina's time, the workshops of XIX - early XX century. From the Fund of graphics - miniature portraits, full of poetry and romanticism, framed in gold and silver.

The exhibition gives an opportunity not only to get acquainted with the works of jewelry art, but also, being partly a continuation of the exposition of iconography, it presents a remarkable number of Russian icons of the XIV - early XX century.

Graphics XVIII-early XX centuries. Drawing, watercolor.
In the halls 49-54 hosts changing exhibitions of graphic works by Russian artists (watercolor, drawing, prints etc. In contrast to oil painting, these compositions are extremely sensitive to light, and therefore can be exposure only a short time. Currently, the next exhibition is being prepared.

In the early eighteenth century has strongly changed the relation of man to the world. One of the means of reflecting reality was at that time engraving. The works are dominated by battle scenes, urban landscape and "wild" nature generated by military events and the construction of St. Petersburg. Graphic works of the new time are distinguished by heartfelt expressiveness. Drawing and watercolor on the themes of history, mythology and various allegories are developing, at the same time there is also a distinctive perception of Russian nature.

The social situation of the beginning of the XIX century contributed to the approval of the schedule features of nationality, civil and Patriotic sentiments. The birth of the genre of satire, cartoons, the use of etching for campaign leaflets-a phenomenon associated with the Patriotic war of 1812. Graphics significantly enriched under the influence of the "natural school" of contemporary literature.

A whole galaxy of artists works in all genres of graphics, creating portraits, still lifes, landscapes, biblical and everyday subjects. But the genre became in the second half of the XIX century leading in the works of many prominent graphic artists. In addition, magazine and book illustrations are developed, sketches of scenery and costumes are created, etc.
The next generation of artists at the beginning of this century, successfully mastering the traditions of the past in graphics, continues to search for original style solutions.

Painting and sculpture XVIII-first half of the XIX century.
At the turn of XVII-XVII centuries in Russia ends the era of the middle ages and a New time. The radical changes in all spheres of life caused by the reforms of Peter I have most decisively affected Russian culture, which is acquiring a secular character, that is, oriented to the real world, in the center of which there is a person. In the sphere of fine arts there is a combination of styles, a system of genres. Close interest in the unique human personality, its external features, social status, character brings to the fore the art of portrait, which became the main genre of Russian painting throughout the XVIII century.

Painting of the first Russian portraitists (I. Nikitin) captures the man of Peter the great era. Born painting, where image accuracy, combined with immediate and somewhat naive poetic perception of the world (I. Vishnyakov, I. Argunov, A. Antropov).

Over time, the inner life of a person is transmitted in the portrait with greater reliability and depth of characteristics (F. Rokotov, D. Levitsky, V. Borovikovsky, sculptors F. Shubin, M. Kozlovsky, I. Martos). In the era of classicism increased attention to historical themes (A. Losenko, P. Sokolov, I. Akimov). There are works of genre (I. Firsov, M. Shibanov).

Romantic art trends of the first half of the XIX century were realized not only in the genre of portrait and self-portrait, but also in the genre of landscape. Russian artists willingly prefer ancient ruins image real nature, is filled with light and sunshine, clear atmosphere and unusual looking northerners black and white contrasts.

Gradually, at the beginning of the XIX century, the universal style of classicism gives way to a romantic sense of the world. naturalness of character and freedom of feelings of a private person (V. Tropinin) in the later portraits of K. Briullov reaches the depth of psychological analysis. Create paintings that become a phenomenon the spiritual life of society ("the Last days of Pompeii" (RM) Bryullov", the appearance of Christ to the people" Alexander Ivanov). Significantly enhanced interest in national and folk motifs (A. Venetsianov and his pupils). Academic exhibition of 1849, where three paintings P. Fedotov was a great success, confirmed that the painting "folk scene" is becoming increasingly important.

Painting and sculpture of the XIX - XX centuries.
The era of the turn of the XIX-XX century was marked by the flourishing of the arts, it is no coincidence that it established the name of the Silver age, a new wave of spiritual revival of Russia.

The creative atmosphere of this time is permeated by the desire for renewal, it is characterized by a kind of neo-romanticism (new romanticism) in contrast to the previous realism. It is at the turn of the century that the period of Modern history opens, the beginning of a radical renewal of the entire artistic system of European art is laid, in which Russia is actively included.
In the late 70's. realism, determined the painting of the Wanderers, is facing a crisis. The method of critical analysis of reality, journalistic acuteness of artistic language led to the impoverishment of expressive means of painting, the displacement of its specificity by literary and life-writing techniques. Therefore, the search for ways to update aimed primarily at the problems of artistic form. The new era is recognized by the idea of beauty, its all-pervading and healing power. Artists no longer believe in the possibility of changing the world by showing the truth of life. They strive to create in art some higher spiritual reality, opposing the chaos of the universe.

Beauty riot (M. Vrubel) and religious humility (M. Nesterov), historical past ("World of art", A. Ryabushkin, N. Roerich) and the fictional, the unreal world of dreams (V. Borisov-Musatov), national ideal (F. Malyavin, K. Yuon) it is difficult to coexist, giving rise to a lot of kobresia artistic concepts.

The language of painting is enriched by the discoveries of impressionism and art Nouveau style (V. Serov, K. Korovin, etc.).

The second half of the XIX century in the Russian fine arts - a time of intense and fruitful development. At the turn of the 1850s and 1860s, the younger generation of artists developed a new aesthetic. The poetic perception of the world is replaced by its critical comprehension and the desire to contribute to the transformation of life by the power of art.
This was most clearly manifested in the paintings of the genre, with its great opportunities to reflect reality (V. Jacobi, V. Pukirev, I. Pryanishnikov). At the same time, many works of genre writers carry warmth and sympathy for the heroes of the works (A. Morozov, V. Perov, L. Solomatkin, V. Maksimov).

In 1870, the artists United in the Association of traveling art exhibitions, which played an important role in the development of democratic painting and opposition to salon-academic art. In these decades there are searches and the statement of the high moral ideal. Psychological portraits, executed pervym V., I. Kramskoy, N. GE, I. Repin, Express the complex, many obrazny spiritual world. Eternal themes of moral duty to society, the search for the truth of life, human suffering, harmony and love are often embodied in religious subjects, in the image of Christ (I. Kramskoy, N.GE, V. Polenov).

Peredvizhnik using all genres of painting, sought to Express the complexity of the modern world, drama, historical conflicts, to fathom the depths of human nature, finally, to convey the beauty of Russian nature (N.Yaroshenko, Repin, V. Vasnetsov, V. Surikov, I. Shishkin, I. Levitan).
Impressionism and symbolism each in its own way dissolved the image of the real world, turning it into an artistic metaphor. During the turn of the century, art has established itself in a sense of self-worth of the world.

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Excursion to Pushkin state Museum of fine arts
Pushkin state Museum of fine arts
This Museum is one of the largest in Russia art collections of foreign art from ancient times to the present day.

The modern exhibition presents an extensive educational collection of tinted plaster casts of works of antiquity, the Middle ages and the Renaissance and a collection of original works of painting, sculpture, graphics and decorative arts.

In the halls of the first floor are presented mainly originals: works of art of Ancient Egypt, antiquity, a collection of European paintings VIII-XVIII centuries; two rooms Italian and Greek courtyards occupy casts.

On the second floor there are rooms represented by casts of art of Ancient Greece, Rome, the Middle ages and the Renaissance. Halls of painting introduce the art of XIX-XX centuries.

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Excursion to Poklonnaya hill
Poklonnaya hill.
The Grand opening in Moscow of the Memorial of Victory in the great Patriotic war of 1941 - 1945 on Poklonnaya hill took place on may 9, 1995.

The first project is the creation of the Memorial was proposed in 1942 (architect Ya tchernichovsky), but to do so in wartime conditions failed.

February 23, 1958 on Poklonnaya hill installed a memorial granite sign with the inscription:"Here will be built a monument in honor of the Victory of the Soviet people in the great Patriotic war of 1941 - 1945".
Soldiers passed in a ceremonial procession. Around planted trees we laid the Park which was named after the Victory.

Victory Park was laid out in 1961. Construction lasted from 1985 to 1995.

The memorial includes:
  • The main monument of Victory (author of the project 3. Tsereteli) -symbolic of the bayonet with the figure of the goddess of Victory and the angels - messengers of glory. The height of the monument is 142 meters (10 centimeters high symbolize the 1st day of the war), at the foot of the monument is the figure of St. George.
  • The Central Museum of the great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 with an area of 33992 m2 with an adjacent art gallery with an area of 3550 m2;
  • Victory Park, which stretches over 135 hectares (1.3 times larger than the Central Park of culture and recreation. A. M. Gorky);
  • Church of St. George the victorious, consecrated may 9, 1995 (architect A. Polyansky, decoration 3. Tsereteli);
  • Memorial mosque, built in 1997 in memory of the Muslim warriors killed in the great Patriotic war 1941 - 1945 (architect I. Tagiev);
  • Memorial synagogue in memory of Jews who died in the great Patriotic war of 1941 -1945 and the Memorial Museum "Holocaust", opened in 1998 (architect M. Zarkhi);
  • Open-air exhibitions - military equipment and weapons, military equipment of the Navy, railway troops, engineering structures, etc.
  • Fountain alley, administrative buildings of the Museum.
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Excursion to Trinity-Sergius Lavra
Trinity-Sergius Lavra.
The glorified monastery of the life-giving Trinity was founded by St. Sergius of Radonezh in 1337.

For centuries, the Trinity-Sergius Lavra has been one of the most revered all-Russian shrines, the largest center of spiritual education and culture.

Within its walls ascetics of the Russian Orthodox Church and among them the venerable Nikon of Radonezh, Maxim the Greek, spiritual writers the venerable Epiphanius the Wise and Pachomius the Logothete asceticised.

Swedenborgianism laurels were hierarchs of Moscow Filaret (Drozdov; 1867) and innocent (Veniaminov; 1879), and the Martyr Metropolitan Vladimir (Bogoyavlensky; 1918).
A unique library of manuscripts and printed books has been collected in the Lavra for centuries. Hundreds of Russian monasteries were founded and spiritually equipped by the monks of the monastery.

During its long history, the Trinity monastery was repeatedly attacked by enemies. In 1608 1610 the monastery withstood the siege of thirty thousand troops of Polish-Lithuanian invaders (besieged in the monastery there were about three thousand).

The unparalleled courage of the defense of the Trinity monastery was marked by miraculous appearances of St. Sergius of Radonezh and other saints of God, who strengthened the spirit of the heroic defenders of the Orthodox stronghold.

In 1744 the monastery received the honorary name of Lavra. A glorious period in the history of the Lavra is associated with the name of Metropolitan Plato of Moscow (Levshin, 1812).
In the XVIII-XIX centuries in the vicinity of the monastery there were the monastery of Bethany, Bogolyubsky, Chernigov-Gethsemane and Paraclete monastery. These small monasteries, spiritually and administratively linked to the Lavra, showed the world the great elders of ascetics.

In 1920, the Trinity-Sergius Lavra was closed. In its buildings since 1920 housed the historical and art Museum and other institutions. Some of the buildings were occupied for housing.
The revival of the monastery began in the first postwar year. On Holy Saturday in 1946, the Lavra bells heralded the first after the closure of the Lavra divine services in the assumption Cathedral.

The renewed monastery still occupies an outstanding place in the life of the Russian Church. Within its walls in 1971, 1988, 1990 were Local Councils.
Thousands of pilgrims flock to the Trinity-Sergius Lavra from all over Russia, from countries near and far abroad.

The oldest building on the territory of Lavra, the Trinity Cathedral (14221425), in which repose the Holy relics of the Abbot of the Russian land Sergius of Radonezh.

In the iconostasis of the Church icons letters of St. Andrew Rublev. Antiquity is different and the Church in honor of the descent of the Holy spirit on the apostles, built by Pskov masters in 1476. The magnificent assumption Cathedral built in 15591585 years by order of Tsar Ivan the terrible.

Near the Cathedral tomb of Tsar Boris Godunov and his family. Hip the Church of St. Zosima and Savvaty of Solovki in Hospital wards built in the years 1635-1637. The splendor of the decoration in the style of "Moscow Baroque" is the Church of St. Sergius with a refectory (1687-1692).

Among the monuments of Church architecture of the XVIII century are Mikheev (1734) and Smolensk (1746-1753) churches, as well as a five-tiered bell tower (1741-1770).

Behind the altar of the assumption Cathedral on the North side buried Ivan Sergeevich Aksakov (1886). K. N. Leontiev (1891), V. V. Rozanov (1919) and other famous figures of Russian culture are buried in the cemetery of Chernihiv skete.

Since 1814 on the territory of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra is the Moscow Theological Academy the oldest institution of higher education in Russia, founded in 1685 in Moscow.

Transferred after the fire of 1812 to the Lavra, the Academy was located in the former Royal palaces (XVII century). Closed in 1919, the Academy was revived in 1946. The Moscow Theological Academy and Seminary train clergymen of the Church, teachers of theological educational institutions, and Church workers.

The Seminary has a Regency and Icon painting school. In absentia, the Academy and Seminary educated clergy of the Russian Orthodox Church from different dioceses.

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City of the Snake and the Bronze Horseman,
The city of Pushkin and Dostoevsky…

Tours of St. Petersburg

Explore the Northern capital of the Russian Federation - one of the most beautiful and graceful cities, where every stone has a history.
St. Petersburg is the northernmost capital of the world. It is located at the latitude of Greenland, Alaska, Chukotka.
This explains the phenomenon of white nights, which attracts tens of thousands of tourists in the summer.
The city is relatively young. It was founded less than 300 years ago by Peter the Great, who laid the first stone of the Peter and Paul fortress in 1703 which was the beginning of the history of the new city.
Saint Petersburg became the capital of Russia and the center of political and cultural life in 1712.

Saint Petersburg is one of the greatest and most beautiful cities in the world. It is a historical and cultural value as great as Paris, London or Rome.

Northern Palmyra, Northern Venice as Saint Petersburg is often called is visited annually by thousands of tourists from all over the world.
How to book an excursion?
For the convenience of tourists visiting our web site we have listed sightseeing routes, the main historical and architectural attractions of Saint Petersburg which are located on the route including the main ones:St Isaac's Cathedral, the Peter and Paul Fortress, the Admiralty, Nevsky Prospect, the Palace Square, the Senat's Square, the Cruiser Aurora, the Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood, the Kazan Cathedral, Palace and Park ensembles and many other places of interest.

Saint Petersburg has changed in recent few years. In comparison with many other cities of Russia Saint Petersburg is a young city. It was founded by Peter the Great on 27'May, 1703 on the marshy lands and turned into one of the world's architectural masterpieces. From 1712 to 1918 Saint Petersburg was the capital of Russia, the residence of all Russian tsars. Today it is the second largest city of Russia, a centre of culture and arts, the "tourist capital" of the country. Many international events, markets, festivals, political and business meetings are held in the city.

Saint Petersburg has been renamed three times: at the beginning of the First World War the city got the name of Petrograd, after the death of Lenin in 1924, the city was renamed Leningrad. In 1991, after the referendum, the historical name was returned to the city.

We are sure that you will discover something new and you will want to wander around Saint Petersburg to see with your own eyes all its splendor.

Please take into consideration that the cost of excursions depends on many factors comprising this service: hourly job af the assistant or guide-interpreter, transportation (arrival-departure, hourly work and waiting), entrance fees to sites, cost of the license to conduct some tours in Saint Petersburg, etc.

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TOUR1. Sightseeing tour of St. Petersburg.
Tourists will get acquainted with the historical center of the city and see the most famous squares:
  • St. Isaac's Square,
  • Palace Square,
  • will drive along Nevsky and other Central streets and avenues
  • Senate Square
  • the Church on the Spilled Blood
  • Arrow at Vasilievsky island
  • Bronze horseman
  • St. Isaac's Cathedral
  • Summer garden
  • The Cruiser ship "Aurora"

Tour 1

The tour will allow tourists to explore the most interesting monuments, museums and streets and bridges of the Northern capital.
TOUR2. Visit to the State Hermitage.
The State Hermitage occupies five buildings: the Winter Palace, the Small, Old and New Hermitage, and the Hermitage theatre
  • Residence of Russian emperors and empresses
  • Hermitage city tour (2 hours)
  • Tour of the "Golden treasure" (1 hour)
  • Tour of the "Diamond treasure" (1.5 hours)
  • Sightseeing tour of the Hermitage + a tour of one of the galleries of jewels: "Gold repository" or "Diamond repository". (3-3. 5 hours).

Tour 2

The collection of the state Hermitage Museum has about three million unique exhibits for which 350 halls are allocated.
TOUR 3. Visit to Peter and Paul Cathedral.
  • The history of the city bagan from Peter and Paul fortress. It was the first construction, originally wooden and earthen constructed by the order of Peter the Great on 27' May 1703 on Zayachy (hare) island.
  • The fortress was named St. Petersburg, which means-the city of Saint Peter.
  • The fortress was rebuilt in stone and a Cathedral is built on the site of a wooden Church dedicated to the apostles Peter and Paul.

Tour 3

The tour will allow tourists to learn the history of the Peter and Paul fortress, its role and all the reincarnations in the period from XVII to XXI century.
TOUR 4. Country excursions: Peterhof, Pavlovsk, Tsarskoye Selo...
  • Peterhof is invariably associated with fountains. The country residence of the Russian emperors has gained worldwide fame as the"capital of fountains".
  • The Palace and Park ensemble of Pavlovsk appeared at the end of the XVIII century as the summer residence of Grand Duke Pavel Petrovich, son of Catherine II and his wife Maria Feodorovna.
  • Tsarskoye Selo is a brilliant monument of world architecture and landscape art. Many outstanding architects, sculptors, painters embodied here the plans of the crowned owners.

Tour 4

The tour will allow tourists to get acquainted with vivid examples of landscape architecture of the XVIII-XX centuries, admire the beautiful fountains, plunge into the atmosphere of solemnity and luxury.
City tour of St. Petersburg
During the 3-hour sightseeing tour of St. Petersburg tourists will see the most beautiful and famous places of the city.

Tourists will be taken along the first and main streets of St. Petersburg – Nevsky Prospekt, where Gostiny Dvor and Passage, the house of books and Stroganov Palace and, of course, the Admiralty – the first shipyard of St. Petersburg, where Nevsky Prospekt begins.

Tourists will visit the main squares of the city, where stops will be made:
  • Palace square, formed by three buildings-the Hermitage, the General staff building with a triumphal arch, the Guards corps headquarters Building and the Alexandria column, is one of the most striking architectural ensembles in St. Petersburg.
  • Senate square (Decembrists square) with a monument to the founder of the city Peter I - the Bronze horseman, the building of the Senate and the Synod, which now houses the constitutional court of Russia.
  • St. Isaac's square, where the majestic St. Isaac's Cathedral, the bronze monument to Nicholas I, the elegant Mariinsky Palace, which is now the Legislative Assembly of the city.
Next, tourists will proceed to the Spit of Vasilievsky island, a place with a magnificent panorama of the center of St. Petersburg. From the spit of Vasilievsky island is clearly visible Hare island, which is the Peter and Paul fortress. It was from there that the construction of St. Petersburg began, where the first stone was laid in the Foundation of the city. Peter and Paul Cathedral, whose spire rises above the fortress – one of the symbols of St. Petersburg.

During the tour, tourists will visit the Champ de Mars, see St. Michael's castle and the Tauride Palace, as well as churches through which St. Petersburg is called the city of all religions-Kazan Cathedral, Church of the Savior on spilled Blood, the Catholic Church of St. Catherine, the Lutheran Church of Saints Peter and Paul, a Muslim Mosque and, of course, Smolny Cathedral - the pearl of our city.

St. Petersburg has another name-Venice of the North, because it is built along the banks of the Neva river, and during the tour tourists will move from one Bank to another, and will be able to admire the bridges over the Neva, Moika, Fontanka.

During the sightseeing tour of St. Petersburg, tourists will travel along the main routes, revealing the beauty and uniqueness of the city on the Neva.
Guides will give travel information and tell a lot of exciting facts from the life of famous citizens, representatives of different eras, including talented artists, and generals, and royalty, and even literary characters.

Palace square.
One of the finest Palace ensembles in the world. The square is located in front of the Winter Palace, the former residence of the kings, built by the great Rastrelli in 1754-1762. In the center of the square Alexander Column, a monument in honor of the victory of the Russian people in the Patriotic war of 1812. Like the Red Square in Moscow, the Palace square of St. Petersburg witnessed the most important events in Russian history.

The State Hermitage Museum (Winter Palace).
There are only a few museums in the world that can be compared with the Hermitage in value, value and variety of exhibits. Its unique collection, which filled 125 halls of the Winter Palace, has more than 2.7 million exhibits, the finest examples of World, European and Russian culture.

Peter and Paul Fortress.
It is located on the right Bank of the Neva river. Built by Peter I in 1703, it was never used as a fortress and its bastions were turned into a prison for political prisoners. Today it is an architectural and historical Museum. Peter and Paul Cathedral was the burial place of many Russian rulers and their families.

Smolny.
This architectural ensemble is the pride of St. Petersburg. The building is in the style of XVIII-XIX century. Its oldest part is a convent (1764) with a magnificent Cathedral 85 meters high. In the 19th century, a school for girls of noble birth was built next to the convent. During the great October Socialist Revolution of 1917 Smolny was the headquarters of the Revolutionary forces and their leader V. I. (Ulyanov) Lenin.

St. Isaac's Cathedral.

One of the most beautiful and tallest buildings in St. Petersburg with a dome height of 101.5 meters. St. Isaac's Cathedral was built in 40 (1818-1858) years by the French architect Auguste Montferrand in the Russian classical style. St. Isaac's Cathedral is interesting not only for its architectural style and construction technology, but also the interior, decorated with 150 paintings, 62 mosaics and sculptures.

Count Yusupov's Palace.
The residence of the noble Russian family Yusupov, has seen a lot in his lifetime. Rasputin was killed here. The festive and living rooms of the Yusupov Palace are open to visitors. It currently hosts concerts of classical and folk music.

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Excursion to the State Hermitage Museum
The State Hermitage is the main art Museum of St. Petersburg and Russia.
The state Hermitage occupies five buildings: the Winter Palace, the Small, Old and New Hermitage, and the Hermitage theatre.

The collection of the state Hermitage Museum has about three million unique exhibits for which 350 halls are allocated.

The Museum dates back to 1764 during the reign of Catherine II, when the mistress of the Winter Palace bought 225 paintings by Western European artists abroad and placed the collection in her private chambers. She called them "her Hermitage" - a secluded place where only the Empress's entourage were allowed.

Catherine II was so fond of collecting that the newly acquired paintings, sculptures, objects of decorative and applied art no longer fit in her chambers. To accommodate them, new buildings were built next to the Winter Palace.

It was opened to the public in 1852 and to this day remains one of the most popular sightseeing attractions of St. Petersburg, which is visited by almost 100% of tourists visiting the city.
The tour of the Hermitage takes place in the richly decorated state rooms of the Museum.

You climb up the beautiful front of the Jordan staircase; previously it was called the Embassy, as the ambassadors of foreign States was raised in the halls for audiences.

You will visit The small and Large Throne rooms, the field Marshal's and coat of arms halls; you will see the preserved rooms of the Russian emperors: a Blue bedroom, a Crimson study, a Gold living room and a White dining room.

During the excursion to the Hermitage you will admire paintings by Vincent van Gogh, El Greco, Pablo Picasso; you will see many masterpieces of painting, including paintings by Leonardo da Vinci "Madonna Litta" and "Madonna Benoit", paintings by Rembrandt "Danae" and "the Return of the prodigal son". The Museum's sculpture collection includes works by the great sculptors Michelangelo, Edgar Degi, Rodin, which You will also see during the tour.

In the pavilion hall of the Small Hermitage the guide will acquaint tourists with one of the most famous exhibits of the Museum - the Peacock clock with a unique device of the master James Cox, which belonged to the Empress Catherine II. The figures of the peacock, the rooster and the owl are equipped with mechanisms that set these birds in motion: the owl turns its head and flaps its eyes, the peacock spreads its magnificent tail, and the rooster crows hoarsely.

During the excursion to the Hermitage, on the ground floor of The new Hermitage, You will see a 19-ton Kolyvan vase carved from a single piece of green-wavy Jasper. This is the largest vase in the world (height 2.57 m) and it is called the "Queen of vases". Kolyvan vase is one of the state symbols of the Altai territory and is depicted on the coat of arms and flag of the region, as well as on the order "for services to the Altai territory".

A sightseeing tour of the Hermitage can be continued with a visit to one of the galleries of jewels: the "Golden treasure" or the "Diamond treasure".

The "Golden treasure" presents almost fifteen hundred gold products from the VII century BC to the present day: hryvnia, combs, bracelets, jewelry for clothing and hats. Here is the gold of the Siberian collection of Peter I, found in Western Siberia at the beginning of the XVIII century; gold of the Scythians; gold of the Eastern Slavs.

In the "Diamond treasure" you will see Church utensils for the Royal family; porcelain and glassware made of rock crystal; a set of gold utensils and toilet articles of Empress Anna Ivanovna; watches and jewelry with diamonds; boxes donated to the Imperial families; works of art of the Imperial Faberge factory; snuffbox of Empress Catherine II.

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Excursion to Peter and Paul Fortress
The history of the city began by the erection of Peter and Paul fortress.
It was the first construction, at first wooden and earthen, founded by Peter I on 27'May 1703 on Zayachy (hare) island. The fortress was named St. Petersburg, which means-the city of Saint Peter.

Then the fortress is rebuilt in stone and on the site of a wooden Church dedicated to the apostles Peter and Paul erected Cathedral. People called the Cathedral Peter and Paul and the name goes to the fortress, and the name of the fortress "St. Petersburg" goes to the city.
Peter and Paul Cathedral-unusual for traditional Russian architecture "brilliant" dominant of the city height of 122.5 meters, as if embodies the dream of Peter I of the same rapid rise of St. Petersburg.

The Cathedral inextricably linked its fate with the Imperial family. It was built for worship, but its main purpose - the Imperial tomb. All emperors from Peter I to the last Emperor Nicholas II (except Peter II and John IV) are buried here.

Today in the Peter and Paul fortress is a Museum of the history of the city and everyone can go on a tour in the heart of St. Petersburg, feel the atmosphere of this amazing place.

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Excursion to Russian Museum
The Emperor Nicholas II issued a decree on the establishment of the country's first state Museum of Russian fine art in 1895.
The Museum opened in Mikhailovsky Palace in 1898.

Today the Russian Museum has a unique repository of artistic values. The collection is truly huge - about 400,000 exhibits that relate to all periods of development of Russian art, trends, its main types and genres, trends and schools from the X to the XXI century.
The main exhibition is located in the Mikhailovsky Palace and the Benois building, which is part of the Palace ensemble.

The Mikhailovsky Palace is an amazing and one-of-a-kind architectural monument. It was designed by the famous architect Karl Ivanovich Rossi, who thought and worked in sketches of everything from iron railings with a favorite of military paraphernalia in the decoration of the gate to the Park planning, the solution of urban problems to drawing patterns mosaic parquet in the Palace premises.

Russian Russian Museum, during the tour, You will be able to see the magnificent halls of the Mikhailovsky Palace, paintings by Russian painters and sculptors.

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Excursion to St. Isaac's Cathedral
St. Isaac's Cathedral is one of the most majestic and monumental monuments of St. Petersburg, the largest Orthodox Church in the city.

During the construction of St. Isaac's Cathedral used 43 rocks of minerals. Amazing interior decoration, which presents all kinds of monumental and decorative art-painting, sculpture, mosaic, colored facing stone. The best architects, painters and sculptors worked on the construction, painting and gilding of the Cathedral for 40 years.

The Cathedral is named St. Isaac's, because it was consecrated in honor of St. Isaac of Dalmatia, who is very revered in St. Petersburg and it is no accident - the birthday of Peter I (may 30) coincides with the Saint's day.

Almost from the very beginning of the city's existence, the first St. Isaac's Church was built on the site of the Cathedral, where Emperor Peter I and Empress Catherine Alekseevna were married, and which was rebuilt twice over time.

Since after the last reconstruction by A. Rinaldi the Cathedral did not correspond to the ceremonial appearance of the capital and in 1818 Tsar Alexander I announced a new reconstruction of the Church into St. Isaac's Cathedral, which became the main Cathedral of Russia until the first half of the XX century.

This is what you will see on the tour.
Around the Golden dome of the Cathedral is an observation deck, which offers a magnificent panorama of the city.

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Excursion to Kunstkamera
Among the many excursions in St. Petersburg a visit to the Kunstkamera or the Museum of anthropology and Ethnography of the peoples of the world named after Peter the Great is the first state Museum of Russia. It was founded by Peter I in 1714.

The Museum's collection is based on items collected by Peter I during trips abroad for his "Cabinet of curiosities" - Kunstkamera, which he placed in the Summer Palace.

The Emperor was very interested in various innovations, and he bought rare books, appliances, tools, natural curiosities, globes, stuffed animals and much more. For example, he bought the collection of Albert Seb's Museum for 15,000 guilders.

Interesting exhibits were collected as a result of his numerous trips to Russia - clothes and household items of the nationalities inhabiting the country, minerals, gold nuggets and much more.
Special interest of visitors caused the preserved in alcohol in glass jars monsters-monsters. As the collection grew, it was decided to build a separate building on the spit of Vasilievsky island "Chambers of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, Library and Kunstkamera".

The Kunstkammer arouses constant interest among the guests of the city. The Museum is also a Memorial Museum named after Mikhail Lomonosov.

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Excursion to Peterhof - the city of fountains
Peterhof is invariably associated with fountains.

The country residence of the Russian emperors has gained worldwide fame as "the capital of fountains" for a reason. In luxury and scope Peterhof is not inferior to the famous residence of the French kings-Versailles, and the scale of the fountain system is superior.

The uniqueness of the fountains of Peterhof is that they work without pumps. Nature itself suggested a solution: the water to the fountains and cascades goes by gravity from The Ropsha heights, rich in numerous springs.

According to the plan of Peter I Peterhof was to embody the most advanced artistic and engineering ideas soaring among the Parisian masters and compare in splendor with the famous Royal and princely Park ensembles of France.

To implement this, the Tsar attracted the best architects, masters of the fountain business, engineers and other specialists from Russia and European countries. Peter I himself supervised the design and construction of water cannons.

As a result, Peterhof has a complex with more than 150 fountains and 5 cascades, the Main fountain structure of the Lower Park - the Grand cascade with the fountain "Samson" surprises and amazes tourists from all over the world.

In addition to fountains You can visit the country residence of Russian emperors-the Grand Palace, see the sculptural decoration of the Park: a lot of lead, gilded statues, bas-reliefs, vases.

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Excursion to Pavlovsk
The Palace and Park ensemble of Pavlovsk appeared at the end of the XVIII century as the summer residence of Grand Duke Pavel Petrovich, son of Catherine II and his wife Maria Feodorovna.

The lands were presented by Catherine II to the heir-Tsarevich Pavel Petrovich at the end of 1777 on the occasion of the birth of his firstborn son Alexander. In the period 1780-1786 was built Pavlovsk Palace designed by architect Charles Cameron. Pavel preferred Gatchina as a residence and presented Pavlovskoye Selo to his wife Maria Feodorovna.

From the first steps of arrangement of Pavlovsk its image is created by the young Empress. And today, when you visit Pavlovsk, you feel the mood, the taste of the Grand Duchess; warmth, comfort and coziness radiates furniture, sculpture, paintings, bought by Maria Feodorovna or created by her hand.

The maintenance of the Park was the tireless care of the Grand Duchess. She discussed with the gardeners all the planting and maintenance of the plantings. She especially loved flowering trees and trees with a beautiful pattern of foliage. But most of all attention was paid to roses, which were brought to her from different countries of Europe. Thanks to the care of the Empress Own garden was turned into a flowering oasis of rare shrubs and flowers.

Tour of the Pavlovsk Palace and Park forever leave in the heart a sense of romance, love and warmth. All this Maria Feodorovna invested in the creation of Pavlovsk.

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Excursion to Pushkin (Tsarskoye selo)
Tsarskoye Selo is a brilliant monument of world architecture and landscape art.

Many outstanding architects, sculptors, painters embodied here the plans of crowned customers.
In Tsarskoye Selo in all completeness the variety of art styles of Baroque and classicism is presented. Many of the rulers of Russia, starting with Catherine I and ending with Nicholas II, left their prints in Tsarskoye Selo and their ideas about the beautiful, embodied in the buildings and Park architecture.

While St. Petersburg was being created on the banks of the Neva river, in Tsarskoye Selo in 1717 the construction of a stone Royal house called the "stone chambers" of Catherine I began.
Catherine Palace, built in the Baroque style, admires its size, powerful spatial dynamics. The Grand hall of the Palace and the "Golden enfilade" of state rooms, including the world — famous revived Amber room, surprise with the picturesqueness and luxury of the decor. Once in the halls of the Palace, you will feel the spirit of the Elizabethan and Catherine eras, the era of Emperor Alexander I, you will see rare objects of applied art.

On the territory of the Catherine and Alexander parks with a total area of 300 hectares, there are more than 100 architectural structures: from majestic palaces and monumental monuments to pavilions, bridges, numerous marble monuments, exotic structures, executed in imitation of Gothic, Turkish, Chinese architecture, giving the corners of the parks a romantic character.

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