No visits to museums, only external inspection of buildings and places of interest.
This tour of Moscow will allow tourists to learn the history of the city and the Russian state from the XII century to the present day, get acquainted with the most interesting monuments, museums and streets of the capital. Duration of the tour is 3 hours. The Red Square
is the heart of Moscow, the heart of Russia. This sacred land and unique architectural ensemble created a unique environment with magical charms, like Russian fairy tales.
The Red Square has absorbed the entire history of the country for 7 centuries of its life. Here every stone, every inch of the earth breathe history, covered with legends, awaken the memory and imagination of the Russian people. The Red Square is a battlefield, and a celebration, and a place of religious holidays, and a cemetery, and the arena of political speeches.
The first mention of the existence of the square-bargaining found in written sources in 1434, but its history begins much earlier.
In the Northern part of the Red Square in the XIII century there was a Posad, ie trade and craft foothills, near the road, which in pre-Mongol times ran from the city gates along the banks of the river Neglinnaya to the surrounding villages and monasteries (along the route of modern Nikolskaya street). The Western border of the square began to be determined in the XIV century, when on the site of the modern Spasskaya tower stood its wooden predecessor. The Eastern breached the walls of the Kremlin of Ivan Kalita, close facing Posad gate, began to form a major junction of roads. Of course, there had to be a Bargain. The Red Square was born as Posadskaya trade square, and its location was determined by the main gate of the city.
The Red Square is the heart of Moscow, the heart of Russia. This sacred land and unique architectural ensemble created a unique environment with magical charms, like Russian fairy tales.
In the XVI century, the area became known as Trinity Church of the Holy Trinity, which was later erected St. Basil's Cathedral. Documents of the XVII century show that in those days the area was called Pozhar. In Russia, the same object could have several names. And red officially became known only in XIX century, although under this name were mentioned in the documents of the XVII century. Different centuries have left their traces on the square:
in XV century Kremlin wall with Spasskaya, Senatskaya and Nikolskaya towers; in XVI century the place of execution and St. Basil's Cathedral; in XIX century monument to Minin and Pozharsky, the building of the historical Museum and the Upper trade rows (GUM); in XX century Lenin Mausoleum and necropolis at the Kremlin wall.
In the South side of the Red Square is the Pokrovsky Cathedral, or, as it is often called, St. Basil's Cathedral. Behind the fence of the temple is a monument to Minin and Pozharsky the first sculptural monument of Moscow, built in 1818. There is a frontal area nearby. The Northern part of the Red Square is occupied by the red brick building of the State Historical Museum, built in the 70-80 years of the last century by the architect V. Sherwood. Alexandrovsky garden.
The creation of a public garden for festivities was part of the complex of town-planning measures for the improvement of the center of Moscow, carried out by the Commission for the construction of the city formed in 1813. In 1819-1823, architect O. I. Bove designed the Alexander garden, which stretches along the North-Western wall of the Kremlin, from the Voskresensky gate to the Embankment of the Moscow river. Previously, this territory was the bed of the river Neglinnaya, subsequently enclosed in a pipe. Osip Bove had planned to equip Park romantic ruins of the original pavilions, exotic grottoes Best gardeners, are invited from all parts of Russia, decorated the garden with unusual trees, shrubs and flowers.
Especially admired contemporaries built at the foot of the middle Arsenal tower designed by O. Bove picturesque grotto Ruins, which is well preserved to this day. Four Doric stone columns, as if sunk deep into the ground, support the vault formed by the pile of stones. Imitation crumbling ancient times, creating a vivid, aromatizirovannaya way of passing time, was to give a building a sad charm in the spirit of the theatrical romanticism of garden and Park ensembles of the time. In the walls of the grotto are mounted white stone details of Moscow buildings dismantled after a fire in 1812.
The terrace, bounding the garden from the Manege, was decorated with a fence, made in 1820 by architect F. M. Shestakov. It has not reached our time. The project of a high fence with a monumental gate on cast-iron pillars, facing the Revolution square, was executed by architect E. Pascal.
The garden is divided into three parts: Upper-from the Revolution to the Troitsky gate, Medium from the Troitsky gate to Borovitskaya and Lower Borovitsky gate to the Kremlin embankment. Three alleys runs through Alexander garden: medium, main alley, laid out along the Kremlin wall, two side more freely.
In the upper garden in 1913, an obelisk in honor of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty was built by architect S. I. Vlasyev. In 1918, at the suggestion of Lenin removed the names of the tsars and replaced them with a list of ideologists and leaders of the revolution.
In 1967, at the top of the garden, under the Kremlin wall was built the memorial complex of the Grave of the unknown soldier (architects D. Burdin, V. Klimov, Yury Rabaev). Lenin's mausoleum.
After the death of V. I. Lenin (21.01.1924 g) it was decided to build him a Mausoleum on the place of solemn tribune, in the heart of red square. According to the project of architect A.V. Shchusev, a temporary wooden Mausoleum was built in three days. In the spring of 1924 it was replaced by a second, also wooden, but more monumental.
In 1929 and 1930 were built granite Mausoleum, repeating in the main architectural forms of the second. The building of the Mausoleum tactfully entered the ensemble. Successively increasing ledges connected the Mausoleum with the entire space of a huge area, created a rhythmic integrity of the transition from it to the Kremlin wall, the tower, the dome of the Senate. The mausoleum was small: its height was 12 meters, which was a third of the height of the Senate and the sixth part of the Spasskaya towers. And this was the limit value at which the Mausoleum could organically fit into the Red square. At small absolute sizes, the building gives the impression of monolithic power due to the pyramidal architectural composition.
The Lenin mausoleum has significantly transformed the composition and structure and imagery of the red square, visibly cemented spatial gravity the red square to the Kremlin, becoming a new ideological and architectural centre of the main square of the Soviet power.
For the past seven decades, the Mausoleum has been the main tribune of the country. In front of him on the red square military parades were held, the columns of workers who had to demonstrate to the world the might of the Soviet Union, the unity of the party and the people. In 1991, the military parade on red square on November 7 was first canceled. The GUM and upper trading rows.
Gigantic in absolute size, the building, which occupied an entire block in front of the Kremlin wall and entered world history as an essential part of the ensemble of red square - shopping arcade, consisting of three longitudinal and three transverse streets, which originally did not have exterior doors.
In fact, it is warm, ie heated, comfortable shopping malls, consisting of thousands of stores. Floors above the level of the third floor with a span of more than 15 meters are made of glass on the openwork web of thin arcuate metal structures. Their author is engineer V. G. Shukhov. Along the perimeter of the inner streets on the second floor arranged galleries. Each store has a showcase. The complex of rows includes a small building on the other side of Rags lane. He vetoshny (parallel red square) was not an internal street series is not accidental: on the other side was not redeemed by the merchant houses. The trading rows traditionally, the area served as a market-place, with the end of the XV century; the trade was strictly organized. There are several hundred specialized series: bloom (silk), Thread, Knife etc.
Very deep, more than 8 meters basements include the remains of the walls of the shopping malls XVII, XVIII and first half XIX centuries In one of the cellars housed the famous restaurant Martijanec. In addition, the building will include three large halls, where large exhibitions have been held more than once. Above the streets of the rows are light reinforced concrete bridges. It's the work of engineers A. F. Lolita and Vladimir Shukhov. The architecture of the building belongs to A. N. Pomerantsev, the winner of the closed competition in 1888, for which 23 projects were submitted. Pomerantsev focused on the newly built building of the Historical Museum. Archaeologically filled with exactly the attributes of Russian style - panels, profiled cornices of crackers, tents and epanche coatings not more than the decor, thrown over an extremely rational structure of well-organized functional circuits, focused on the convenience of buyers and sellers. St. Basil's Cathedral (intercession Cathedral).
In the southern part of red square stands the intercession Cathedral. In 1552, after the conquest of the Kazan khanate by Tsar Ivan the Terrible, a stone Trinity Church was built on this site, near which seven wooden churches were built in memory of the Kazan victories. The stone nine-throne Church was built in 1555 1561 on the site of wooden churches (architects Barma and Postnik Yakovlev). Thrones ultimate of churches were consecrated in memory of the celebrations, the days which were days of victories with the capture of Kazan. In 1588 over the grave of St. St. Basil (buried at the walls of the Trinity Church in August 1552) from the North-East was built a new chapel, consecrated in his honor and gave the second name to the entire Cathedral. In 1672, from the South-East was arranged chapel of the ordination (1680 Nativity of the virgin) over the grave of St. John of Moscow. During its history, the Cathedral repeatedly burned and restored. In 1670-1690 was built belfry; built promenade from the porch; the shape of the domes was changed from the helm at the onion; produced preserved until today, multi-color coloring of the walls. In 1923 part of the Cathedral was turned into a Museum, the temple was finally closed in 1929, at the same time almost all the bells of the belfry were removed and melted down. Today the Cathedral is a branch of the State Historical Museum. The first service was held on October 14, 1991, but there are no regular services. Cathedral Of Our Lady Of Kazan.
The temple-monument in honor of the Kazan icon of the Mother of God, with which was associated the miraculous deliverance of Russia from the Polish invasion, was built at the expense of the first Tsar of the Romanov dynasty Mikhail Fedorovich and consecrated in 1636 With the time of construction, the temple became one of the main Moscow churches. Was repeatedly rebuilt in 1760, 1805, 1825, 1865 and was refurbished in 1952-1930 years under the guidance of architect P. D. Baranovsky the parish funds. In 1936, the Church was demolished. In his place was first made a summer cafe, then the Park. In this form, this site has survived to the present day.
The Church was restored in 1993 at the expense of the city. It was recreated hastily, under the brutal control of the authorities. Scientific contradictions, inevitable in such a complex case, were removed by a strong-willed order. The goals were political, not scientific and restoration. It was necessary to show a new course of power, focused on respect for the past, to Orthodoxy, to correct the mistakes and crimes of predecessors. Goal achieved. Now this is a very elegant building adorns the beginning of the St. Nicholas, Metropolitan. John in the presence of the king. Interior decoration of the famous Russian artists V. Vereshchagin, G. I. Semiradsky, V. I. Surikov, V. B. Makovsky, F. A. Bruni, A. T. Markova, marble bas-reliefs by sculptors N. S. Pimenov, A. V. Loganovsky, P. K. Klodt, etc., bronze ornaments, candlesticks and panikadila by the arch. L. V. Dal. In the gallery surrounding the building, there were 177 marble boards with the names of the dead, wounded and decorated officers, the names of military units, the dates of the main battles of the Patriotic war of 1812.
The temple became the Cathedral of Mithras. Moscow. On August 15, 1917, the local Cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church, the Northern part of red square, was opened there. From the point of view of the ensemble, this object turned out to be too elegant, too decorative. Excessive decor, toy, karamelnoe contrary to the austere, majestic nature of the ensemble of red square.
The reconstruction of the Cathedral was the impetus for a series of similar recreations: the resurrection gate, the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. So this action can not be assessed otherwise as positive. The author of the restoration architect Oleg Zhurin. Cathedral Of Christ The Savior.
The decision to build a Cathedral to mark our gratitude to divine Providence for saving Russia from the doom that overshadowed her, was adopted by Emperor Alexander I in 1812, the Original project providing for the construction of the Cathedral on the Sparrow hills (architect A. L. Vitberg, founded in 1817) was implemented. The new project was approved in 1832 by Emperor Nicholas I. The Cathedral was re-founded in 1839 on the Prechistinskaya embankment, in the ancient tract Chertolye on the site of the Alekseevsky convent. The author of the project architect K. A. Tone applied many of the advanced achievements of the construction science of the time, which allowed to build a building that can stand for many centuries. The Cathedral was built at the expense of the Treasury with the involvement of people's donations. In 1883, the Cathedral which became the tallest building in Moscow and the largest Cathedral in Russia (height 103.5 m, capacity 10,000 people), was consecrated by the new Patriarchy. On November 5 of the same year, the first Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia was elected in the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour after a two-hundred-year Synodal period. The Metropolitan Moscow became Tikhon (Belavin). He was canonized in 1989.
In January 1918, the Brotherhood of Christ the Saviour was established to keep the Cathedral in order. In 1922-1923 the Cathedral was captured by the renovators, and in 1931 it was closed. On December 5, 1931, On Stalin's personal order, the Cathedral was blown up. On this site it was planned to build a Palace of Soviets height of 480 m (arch. B. Iofan). The project was not implemented, in 1960 on the former territory of the temple was opened swimming pool Moscow. In 1991, on the site of the altar of the Cathedral was built a chapel in the name of the icon of the mother of God. On January 7, 1995 the solemn laying of the temple took place. The Cathedral was opened on August 19, 2000. Doubt and rejection of the project of reconstruction of the main Orthodox Cathedral left behind: the Muscovites took recreated the Shrine. Sparrow hills.
The area is known since the XV century as the village vorobyovo. The name is preserved in the name of Sparrow hills. One of the seven hills of Moscow, the length - from the mouth of the river Setun to Andreevsky bridge. The area is 106 hectares, the height of the mountains - up to 220 m, the height above the river level - from 80 to 100 m. on the territory of the Sparrow hills are: ski sports schools, ski jumping schools, bike trails and Jogging tracks, volleyball and basketball courts, sports towns. Rough terrain allows you to plan the training process of varying complexity. Competitions of various levels are held.
Overview of the city from the Sparrow hills until now remains a necessary part of the sightseeing tour of Moscow for guests of the capital. Almost always you can see there and "unorganized" Muscovites, and tourist groups. Moscow has a magic ennobling force: how many exalted thoughts and noble impulses were born here by its contemplation!
The reason for the proverb "Who has not been to Moscow has not seen the beauty" was the panoramic view of Moscow. Nowadays a broad panorama of Moscow is beautiful than ever.
In 1957, K. F. Huon painted "New Moscow", which depicted a view of Moscow from the Sparrow hills. The artist, naturally, focused attention, embodying his plan, on new buildings, first of all, at the Luzhniki stadium, which occupied the former meadows. But still the panorama of Moscow and in this picture appears white bulk with glimpses of Golden domes, as in the old, a century ago at Aivazovsky landscape... Moscow State University.
Almost all used to be proud of the Russians and much of what makes our capital unique city, originates from the Moscow University: the zoo was founded by the first Russian Professor of the University A. Bogdanov more than one hundred and twenty-five years ago; the theatrical Moscow put the Amateur student theatre. And the first professional troupe from 1806 to 1824, until the building of the modern Maly theater was built, performed on the wing at Nikitskaya, on the site now is the house of culture of Moscow state University.
In order not to disappear in the center of the capital, the unique spirit of scholarship, creativity, distinguishing the brainchild of Mikhail Lomonosov, it is proposed to establish a historical and cultural zone of the Moscow University.
When Empress Elizabeth signed a decree on the establishment of the University in Moscow, it was decided to release for him a beautiful three-storey building with a turret on red square (it has not survived). Had to overcome from it revizion Board, Commissariat office and the Main police station, which housed 2 million rubles copper coins, the weight of which amounted to over 100,000 pounds. The trouble of relocation was not in vain.
About the shortcomings and needs of the University of Moscow was a Memorandum submitted in 1775 in the Senate for granting Catherine the great. The Empress asked to withdraw for the University more able to place for example on the Sparrow hills. At that time, classes were held in a cramped building on red square.
Money in the state Treasury for the construction was not, but to improve the conditions in which the act of the University gradually bought up on moss possession Ivashkina, Fonvizin, Volkonsky and of Prince Baryatinsky.
In the XX century Moscow University again became cramped. Given that the Russian budget does not have funds for the construction of a new complex on the territory allocated on the other side of Lomonosov Avenue, Moscow University asks the President to consider the return of three previously owned buildings on Mokhovaya street. One of them is the rector's house. The second building is a hereditary possession of chemists. The third house that MSU wants to return is a building specially built in 1918 for the Geological Institute of Moscow University.
By decree of Boris Yeltsin Moscow University is recognized as a particularly valuable object of national heritage of Russia.
The Grand opening in Moscow of the Memorial of Victory in the great Patriotic war of 1941 1945 on Poklonnaya hill took place on may 9, 1995.
The first project of the Memorial was proposed in 1942 (architect Y. chernikhovsky), but it was not possible to implement it in wartime.
February 23, 1958 on Poklonnaya hill installed a memorial granite sign with the inscription: There will be built a monument in honor of the Victory of the Soviet people in the great Patriotic war of 1941 1945. Soldiers marched past him in ceremonial procession. Around planted trees, laid the Park, which was named after the Victory.
Victory Park was laid out in 1961. Construction lasted from 1985 to 1995.
The memorial includes:
- The main monument of Victory (author of project 3. Tsereteli) symbolic bayonet with the figure of the goddess of Victory and the angels to be the messengers of glory. The height of the monument is 142 meters (10 centimeters high symbolize the 1st day of the war), at the foot of the monument is the figure of St. George.
- The Central Museum of the great Patriotic War of 1941 1945 with an area of 33992 m² with an adjacent art gallery with an area of 3550 m²
- Victory Park, which stretches over 135 hectares (1.3 times larger than the Central Park of culture and recreation. A. M. Gorky);
- Church of St. George the victorious, consecrated may 9, 1995 (architect A. Polyansky, decoration 3. Tsereteli);
- Memorial mosque, built in 1997 in memory of the Muslim warriors killed in the great Patriotic war of 1941-1945 (architect I. Tagiev);
- Memorial synagogue in memory of Jews who died in the great Patriotic war of 1941-1945 and Holocaust Memorial Museum, opened in 1998 (architect M. Zarhi);
- Open-air exhibitions of military equipment and weapons, Navy equipment, railway troops, engineering structures, etc.
- Fountain alley, administrative buildings of the Museum.
The first mention of the street dates back to the end of the XV century. It is assumed that the word Arbat is of Arabic origin and means a suburb. In the XVI century there was a Royal settlement. In the XVIII century Arbat with its adjoining alleys were fashionable aristocratic district. The dominant types of buildings were urban mansions and estates. By the early 19th century, Arbat was mostly built up with houses with shops and small town estates. It is interesting that in the territory of the area on professions of the people who inhabited this or that place streets and lanes were called. So there cook street, Grain lane Table lane, Skatertny lane, etc. the Fire of 1812 changed the little image of Arbat.
Wooden construction was still allowed here, and new houses were built on the foundations of the old ones. By the mid-19th century, many gardens remained on the Arbat. Building the streets were still bursting, especially in the middle of "noble" parts and compacted in the shopping adjacent to the Smolenskaya and Arbat squares. In the second half of the 19th century the appearance of the street is approaching the modern. Appear three-storey house, set up some low houses, decrease the gaps between houses, more shops. Home this time, which is highly decorative and plasticity of the facades, tied old the street building into a single architectural ensemble. At the turn of the 19-20 centuries, the construction of multi-storey "profitable" houses began here.
Today Arbat is a quite colorful development. It houses: Urban estates, most of which are maintained in satisfactory condition. However, their functional purpose has changed - they are occupied by institutions. Their surroundings were different. Land has been significantly reduced, with later multi-storey buildings appearing around most. Former city of low-rise private houses with vegetable gardens. As a rule, they are located inside the blocks formed by the former apartment houses facing the streets and alleys. The condition of most of them is unsatisfactory. Houses and yard services are being destroyed, the boundaries between households no longer exist. Apartment buildings of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Building was carried out on the perimeters of the old, crumbling layout. The facades of the houses determined the shape of the main streets and alleys.
With the beginning of Soviet power for many years construction in this area was not conducted. Accordingly, the blocks that could be formed on the basis of development of the early 20th century, remained unfinished. It is mainly dominated by communal settlement. Residential houses 20-50-ies of the 20th century are few. Construction continued on the scheme of the beginning of the century, ie, too, along the streets and alleys, without affecting intra-territories. Residential and public buildings 60-70-ies of the 20th century. Residential and public buildings of the 80s of our century were built again according to the old scheme, were attached to existing buildings. In the 90s, new buildings were almost not erected, and large-scale reconstruction of houses was carried out.
Unique flavor Arbat today give settled here artists, musicians and traders. Currently Arbat is a pedestrian zone. Bolshoi theatre.
National pride of Russia Academic Bolshoi theatre. The history of Bolshoi is associated with the formation and development of Opera and ballet classics.
Originally the theatre was called Peter on Petrovka street, which he left one of his facades. Its size at the time were gigantic auditorium could accommodate 800 people.
In 1805 the building burned down. The idea of building a new theater returned only in 1816. Finally, in 1824, it was erected to the design of O. Beauvais. The stalls and tiers could accommodate about 3 thousand spectators. The building was designed for complex stage effects. But he was unlucky. In 1853, a fire broke out in the theater.
Restoration of the theater was entrusted to the architect A. Kavos. He radically rebuilt the whole building, decorated it with a white-columned portico, which was crowned by the Apollo Quadriga (sculptor P. Klodt). Kavos paid much attention to the acoustic features of the hall and achieved his goal: the Bolshoi theatre hall is considered one of the best in the world for its acoustic properties. At that time, the theater was called a hall of gold, snow, purple and sunlight.
Hall area 686 square meters, height 19.7 m, stage 21.6 m x 18.5 m.
During the Soviet period of the country's history, the Bolshoi theatre hosted major political and public events, congresses and conferences, as evidenced by commemorative plaques on the facade of the Building.
The Bolshoi theatre is both history and modernity. This is the glorious head of national culture, and the joy that every day gives the audience a famous troupe. The process of formation of the national vocal and ballet school is connected with the Bolshoi theatre. On the posters of the Bolshoi theater the names of Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Khachaturian, Khrennikov, Kabalevsky, Shaporin, Shchedrin, Kholminov, Eshpay, Molchanov and others.
Performances of the theater enthusiastically received the audience of Italy, France, Japan, USA and other countries.
One Bolshoi theatre would be enough to give the square its name. This name is all the more appropriate because there are two more theaters on the square. Submit request